Neuropsychiatric consequences

The brain controls thinking, acting, feeling, motivation and behavior.
This can be disrupted by brain damage and brain disorders.
Neuropsychiatric syndromes (NPS) can occur as a result of brain injury. These are psychiatric complaints caused by a brain disorder.

They may involve:

  • syndromes in which psychiatric complaints are part of the disease (for example dementia with changes in behavior, Lewy body dementia with hallucinations and delusions, or Creutzfeldt Jacob disease with anxiety delusions and/or depression, Huntington's disease with anxiety, depression and/or apathy)
  • syndromes in which psychiatric complaints are common additional symptoms. (for example Parkinson's disease, stroke, traumatic brain injury, etc.).


Neuropsychiatric consequences may include: mood disorders, for example depression/gloom, disinhibited behavior, pathological compulsive laughing/compulsive crying (PBA), anxiety (such as PTSD), apathy, aggression, emotional labilitypsychosis, hallucinations and delusions, and mania.

More information about this subject can be found here.


Measuring instruments for measuring neuropsychiatric consequences 

  • Neurobehavioral Functioning Inventory (NFI)
  • Neurobehavioral Rating Scale (NRS)
  • Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI)
  • Overt Behavioral Scale (OBS)
  • Measuring instruments used to measure agitation and aggression: Agitated Behavior Scale (ABS), Overt Aggression Scale (OAS), Cohen Mansfield Agitation Index (CMAI)

  • Measuring instruments used to measure apathy: Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES)

  • Measuring instrument to assess sexual disinhibition (verbal/physical): The St. Andrews Sexual Behavior Assessment (SASBA)

  • Instrument for measuring psychopathology: Brief symptom Inventory (BSI).