Impact of brain injury per brain area

Where is the injury? Explained per brain area


Furthermore, on the page on basal ganglia, the following subpages:

Caudate nucleus

Globus pallidus

Lenticular nucleus



Substantia nigra

Subthalamic nucleus



Consequences per brain region 
The brain functions as a whole, but...
Injuries to the brain can affect specific regions, making it difficult to interpret and treat the injury. Properties such as consciousness, language, emotion and intelligence are not situated in only one region

Scientists are discovering more and more about the complex relationships between cognitive functions and the structures of the brain itself; these numerous interconnections need to be understood so that the brains can work as a whole.

None animated GIF

This picture shows an image of a thought, you can clearly see that al brain area's are used.

It looks like a big 'road map', with busy junctions and highways that intersect and areas that are closely linked to each other by 80-100 million neurons. Each neuron has 1,000 to 10,000 connections ....

(road map of nerves)

The brain (cerebrum) resembles a large walnut with grooves and turns. The brain consists of two hemispheres. Generally speaking, the left hemisphere is involved in abilities like verbal language, and the right hemisphere more in nonverbal capibilities or functions. The left brain controls the right side of the body and vice versa.

Scientists are still discovering more functions that tended previously to be attributed to the 'other' brain hemisphere. The brain works as a whole. The hemispheres are divided into lobes again.

DAMAGE in the left hemisphere
Remember: One person with damage in this hemisphere may have one or two of these symptoms, while another may have multiple symptoms

File:Brodmann area 33 animation.gif

Possible symptoms may include:

  • disorders, paralysis or sensory disturbances on the right side of the body
  • vision on the right side of both eyes may have decreased (hemianopia)
  • speech and language problems (aphasia)
  • problems with object recognition (agnosia)
  • problems with daily activities, routines which formerly went well (apraxia)
  • memory for verbal (spoken) things
  • decreased analytical skills
  • problems with chronology (ordering events in time sequences, cause and effect)
  • reduced timing and speed skills
  • left and right confusion
  • difficulty in dealing with numbers, understanding numbers and money
  • slow
  • shows some insecure, anxious and withdrawn behavior
  • risk of depression
  • subject to increased mood changes

DAMAGE in the right hemisphere
Remember: One person with damage in this hemisphere may have one or two of these symptoms, while another may have multiple symptoms.

Generally speaking, possible symptoms could include:

  • movement disorders
  • numbness or paralysis on the left side of the body
  • impaired vision on the left side of both eyes, as if both glasses on the left side have been taped over (hemianopia)
  • not realizing that the left side of the body or space exists (neglect)

      no attention to the crippled side of the body

  • spatial awareness problems meaning the sense of space and time can be impaired giving someone an imablilty to asses depth, shape, color and size.
  • visuospatial problems
  • often someone has little insight into his own behavior, problems and limitations (anosognosia)
  • diminshed understanding of social norms in interactieve situations
  • language is often taken literally and jokes and underlying messages are not easily understood
  • difficulty understanding humour
  • difficulty reading emotions such as anger, relief, sadness, joy in verbal communications (prosody)
  • lowering of facial recognition (prosopagnosia)
  • difficulty in seeing the whole or the 'big picture'
  • do not know how one should dress and in what order clothes are put on (apraxia)
  • fast, impulsive, and sometimes inappropriate behaviour
  • sometimes little consideration for others
  • overestimating his / her abilities
  • reduced self-control
  • easily aroused emotionally
  • reduced disease understanding


DAMAGE in the brainstem (truncus cerebri)
Remember: One person with damage in the brainstem may have one or two of these symptoms, while another may have several:


  • disturbances in the sleep-wake cycle
  • attention disorders
  • diplopia (double vision)
  • dizziness
  • difficulty swallowing, eating and chewing
  • sometimes paralysis or weakness of all extremities
  • disturbances of consciousness 



(cerebellum , 'little brain')

Cerebellum animation small.gif

Remember: One person with damage in the hindbrains may have one or two of these symptomswhile another may have several:

  • problems with balance / balance 
    • Fine motor Coordination
    • Balance and Equilibrium
    • Muscle Tone
  • incoordination (rudderless arm)
  • alternating visual depth perception or sudden blurred vision
  • switching from one task to another is difficult
  • logical thinking, planning ability may be impaired
  • abstract thinking ability may be damaged
  • memory may be damaged
  • visual-spatial organizational ability may be damaged
  • speaking ability may be damaged
  • language problems
  • personality changes


Locked in syndrome

Remember: One person with damage in the frontal lobe may have one or two of these symptoms, while another may have several:

Cerebrum - frontal lobe - animation.gif
The frontal lobe effects can be divided into three specific areas:


Damage to side / back of frontal lobe:

inflexible behavior
difficulties learning from own mistakes
difficult to correct
reduced abstract thinking
planning problems
organizational problems
short-term memory disturbance
memory disturbance
attention deficit disorder
ability to organize information reduced
cannot stop an act
Broca's Aphasia (left)
no sense of nonverbal affairs (right)
sided paralysis (hemiplegia)

Damage in the middle of frontal lobe:

Cerebrum - middle frontal gyrus - superior view animation.gif
depending on the environment
initiative will change
loss of power
emotionally not happy not sad

poor movement 
paralysis on side-
of the affected part of the brain

Damage in the region of the eye socket of frontal lobe (frontal orbital):

File:Orbital part of the IFG animation.gif

lack of inhibition

poor self-correction
loss of ability to recognize right and wrong of loss of a 'moral compass' 
Pays little /no attention to others
inappropriate jokes, tactlessness
sense of smell is disturbed

Take a 3d Tour; click here:

This YouTube video shows the consequences of damage per brain region.