Anatomy / Explanation on functions

In this part of the website we explain how our brain is put together and how everything functions within it:

  • Brain areas
  • Blood vessels of the brain
    • Complaints of failure per specific cerebral blood vessel
  • The nervous system
    • The twelve cranial nerves
  • Brain cells
  • Neurotransmitters (signal substances)
  • White matter and gray cells
    • White matter abnormalities (WMA)
  • Anxiety and brain structures
  • Brain and language


The brain is surrounded by three membranes (meninges):

  • The outer membrane of the brain is the dura mater.
  • The middle meningeal membrane is the arachnoid membrane.
  • The innermost membrane is the soft meninges (pia mater).


Anatomy names

The location of an area in the brain is referred to by the following names:

  • Anterior - in front of another part
  • Posterior - behind another part
  • Superior - above another part
  • Inferior - under another part
  • Lateral - further away from the center
  • Medial - more towards the middle
  • Median - located on the center line
  • Proximal - close to another part
  • Distal - far from another part
  • Ipsilateral - on the same side of the brain as another part
  • Contralateral - on the other side of the brain as another part


Then there is another term: Ventral. Ventral means on the ventral side of the midline.


Cerebral grooves and convolutions

The brain is strongly folded with large grooves. As a result, it can cover a large area.
The grooves or convolutions are called 
sulci (plural). 'Sulcus' is the singular form of 'sulci'. 
The folds are called gyri (plural). 'Gyrus' is the singular form of 'gyri'.

Anatomy and function in pictures

Below are five slides showing the anatomy of the brain. You can enlarge the slide by clicking in the top right corner. 

Click on the white arrow to the right for the next picture.